Equine facial lips
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Horses Use Complex Facial Expressions Nearly Identical To Humans
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Within-species communication[ edit ] The function of the flehmen response is within-species communication. By transferring air containing pheromones and other scents to the vomeronasal organ VNOan olfactory - chemosensory organ located between the roof of the mouth and the palate, animals can gather chemical "messages". These scents tell an animal about other members of their species in some of the following ways: Identifying reproductive status — male individuals commonly use the flehmen response as an olfactory mechanism for identifying the reproductive state of females of the same species based on pheromones in the female's urine or genitals.
This is exhibited in the reproductive behavior of sheep. In the sable antelopethe frequency of flehmen changed seasonally, with the highest levels just prior to conception. Female antelopes associate closely with fwcial females in the same reproductive faciwl. Flehmen rates between females anticipated birth synchrony. Additionally, the level of synchrony was predicted by the frequency of female urine sampling during the previous year. Flehmen is a mechanism used by female sable antelopes to manipulate the timing of both conception and birth of offspring. Smelling the newborn foal and the amniotic fluids associated with birth often produces the reaction.
The VNO of newborn elephants displays a structural maturity similar to adults, which supports the conclusion that flehmen at only six weeks of age is used to deliver chemical pheromones to a functional VNO. Goats have been tested for their flehmen response to urine from 20 different species, including several non-mammalian species. This study suggests there is a common element in the urine of all animals, an interspecific pheromone, which elicits flehmen behavior.
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Paralysis of the facial nerve, also known as cranial nerve VII, can affect a large majority of the face. There can also be facial nerve paralysis with peripheral damage of the surrounding areas. Causes of Facial Paralysis in Horses There are multiple events that can cause facial paralysis in your horse. Trauma or injury to the side of the face is one of the most common causes. Another cause could be from his halter being too tight. If your horse is suffering from degenerative nerve disease it could eventually affect his facial nerves in addition to other nerves throughout the body. Diagnosis of Facial Paralysis in Horses If your horse is experiencing unilateral facial paralysis, it will be apparent by his clinical symptoms alone.
Facial lips Equine
If he is experiencing bilateral paralysis, it may be a little more difficult to notice just by appearance alone. Upon further examination and palpation of the facial muscles, fackal will be able to notice symptoms of paralysis. Checking for any type of breakage or bone bruising may affect his recovery period. A complete physical exam will also help her evaluate your horse for any other problems he may be suffering from. Routine blood work will be recommended just as a precaution to ensure everything else in the body is functioning properly.
She will want to ensure there is no infection anywhere and that his red blood cell production is within normal limits.
Some veterinarians are able to use facoal to determine the location of the injury to the faacial and the severity of it. If you want further diagnostics and advanced imaging, the veterinarian may recommend you go to a specialist for an MRI. Treatment of Facial Paralysis in Horses When it comes to treating facial paralysis in your horse, there are multiple therapies you can employ. Massage therapy can be utilized to get good blood flow to the area and applying heat to the muscles in the affected area for 15 minute intervals throughout the day can also help. Photobiomodulation can also be used; it is what is known as light laser therapy.
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